Basic Dough | 基本麵糰

Procedure | 製作過程 : 
weigh ingredients > mix ingredients > fermentation > cutting the dough
磅好材料 > 拌勻 > 發酵 > 分割

Dough fermentation & Cutting | 麵糰發酵及切割 : 
  1. 依士加麵糰用的部份溫水在小碗中拌勻,待5分鐘。
  2. 保留10g~20g液體 (需要時攪拌過程中一點點添加)。
  3. 剩餘的液體放另一小碗中,放入糖和鹽先溶掉。
  4. 其他乾性材料 (牛油除外) 放入大攪拌盆中,加入依士水,再倒入以上(3)之溶液 ,用手在盆內搓成粉糰,放在灑了高根粉的工作枱上。
  5. 按著麵糰底部,用手推開麵糰,再將麵糰摺回靠身體方向,重覆這「推壓搓揉」步驟3分鐘 ; 接著抓著麵糰一角,用力摔打出去,然後對折再轉90度 ,重覆這「摔打揉和」動作140~160次。
  6. 加入牛油,繼續「推壓搓揉」3分鐘和「摔打揉和」約200次,約4~5分鐘,搓成表面光滑不黏手麵糰為準,最後用手把麵糰推圓。
  7. 放麵糰在已塗油的攪拌盆,蓋上保鮮紙,放在溫暖處 (26~28°C) 待發酵約60分鐘 (發酵30分鐘後,可以取出麵糰摺疊和拍打數下,作釋放麵糰的空氣) 至麵糰是原來的2~3倍大。
  8. 將沾滿高根粉的手指插入麵糰中央,指孔不回縮,表示第一次發酵完成。不然,讓麵糰再發酵10分鐘,再試試看。
  9. 取出麵糰放在撒了根粉的枱上,輕輕拍出空氣,分割麵糰成所需等份,手放麵糰上輕輕地拍出空氣,翻轉麵糰,切口往內包,利用手掌與桌面磨擦滾動將麵團滾圓 (枱上不要有粉較易操作),收口向下,蓋上一層保鮮紙,待麵糰鬆弛10~15分鐘。
  10. 接著可以進行下一步整型製作麵包了。

Tips / 心得 :
  • 水份要依照不同溫度及濕度自行調校,天氣乾燥或寒冷,室內水份容易流失,麵糰缺水機會較大,所以計算水的份量時,要較平日的份量增加5g~10g,以補回流失的水份。相反,天氣和暖或潮濕,麵糰流失水份較少。初次麵糰所需水份留起,中途有需要時適量調校。
  • 測試麵糰發酵的程度,將手指插入麵糰中央,凹陷處清晰可見,表示發酵時間準確 ; 下陷凹位迅速回彈,表示發酵時間不足,下陷凹位的四周有陷落迹象,表示發酵時間過長。
  • 遇上天氣冷, 可選擇將整盆麵糰放入另一個注入30~40°C溫水的盤內發酵,發酵期間換溫水以保持溫度。如焗爐有麵糰發酵功能,可省回這步驟。

Dough fermentation & Cutting :
  1. Dissolve yeast with little water from dough ingredients, mix well, set aside for 5 minutes.
  2. Retain 10g~20g liquid, to add gradually during kneading process as needs arise.
  3. In another bowl dissolve sugar and salt in remaining liquid until dissolved.
  4. Fold dry ingredients into a big mixing bowl, except butter, add yeast water and above (3) solution, use hand to mix ingredients to form a rough dough.
  5. Push the dough out on a counter with little sprinkled bread flour, stretching it flat in front of you with the heels of your hands. Fold the top half of the dough back towards you, repeat kneading for 3 minutes; then kneading and beating (throw out the dough, fold half, turn 90 degree) for about 140~160 times.
  6. Add butter, knead 3 minutes, repeat the kneading and beating for about 200 times until the dough is glossy, soft and smooth (takes about 4~5 minutes). Roll dough into shape of ball with both hands.
  7. Put dough in a lightly oiled bowl, cover with plastic wrap, ferment for 60 minutes in a warm place (26~28°C) until it rises double (After the first 30 minutes, you may take the dough out and punch a few times to release the gas).
  8. Poke the risen dough with your finger coated with bread flour up to the second knuckle and then take it out. If the indentation remains, first fermentation is complete.  Else, continue a further 10 minutes fermentation and test again.
  9. Transfer the fermented dough to the counter sprinkled with little bread flour, punch it a few times to release gas in the dough. Divide into portions, press the dough lightly with both hands to squeeze air out, reverse the dough, fold the outer part towards the centre and seam. With the seam down, use centre of palm to roll it lightly against the counter to form a ball (this works better on a counter WITHOUT flour), covered the dough with a plastic wrap, let rest for 10~15 minutes.
  10. Ready for the next step for stuffing/shaping.

Tips / 心得 :
  • Water quantity required for a dough need adjusted according to the temperature and humidity of the day. On cold and dry day, moisture drops and the dough needs a bit more water, say 5g~10g more; on hot and warm day, water loss is less, thus retain 10g of water and adjust as you go.
  • You can insert finger into the middle of the dough. If the dough brings back, it means fermentation is not completed. If the dough around the finger mark comes off, it means over risen.
  • In cold weather, put the dough with the bowl into another bigger bowl filled with warm water of 30~40°C to ferment. Change water if it turns cold. This step can be saved if the oven has fermentation function.